Aphrodisiacs stimulate the activity of individual organs or tissues, or whole organism. The most common substances of plant origin include primarily the caffeine in tea leaves and coffee seeds and which stimulates the central nervous system, and through it tones the entire body, it acts as emictory. Greatly stimulates the central nervous system from the seeds of the strychnine strophanthus, causing a general rise of all vital functions, worsening vision, hearing, pain and increasing the activity of the heart, digestive and respiration. Camphor from camphor laurel, larch and some other plants stimulates the activity of the heart and respiration. Similarly act synthetic kordiamin and korazol. Alkaloid of ephedrine from horsetail ephedra causes stimulation of the sympathetic nervous and cardiovascular systems. Its synthetic analogue of amphetamine is used against fatigue, it concentrates attention, hearing and sight.
A large group of exciting, restorative materials are consisted of compounds of ginseng, Manchurian Aralia, devil's high, Eleutherococcus senticosus, as well as levzei, arnica, Schisandra chinensis, Rhodiola Rosea and yellow gentian. They have different chemical nature, primarily related to steroid and triterpene glycosides in derived lignans, but they all share a common effect on the human body. They tone up the vital processes, normalize blood circulation, respiration, digestion and relieve fossil and stiffness caused by stress, and spasms of smooth muscles. Therefore, these substances are called anti-stress or adaptogens, because they increase a person's ability to adapt to stressful situations. They are especially important in our times higher speeds, neuro-emotional stress.
Anesthetic (pain relievers). They cause a loss of sensation of pain in the place where they were created. The first one was cocaine - an alkaloid of the coca plant. Since this drug is dangerous (once in the bloodstream, it causes narrowing of the blood vessels of the brain, respiratory arrest and death), in medicine is often used synthetic analogs of cocaine - novocaine, dicain, tropokain etc., and isolated from the Central Asian birch rough - konvokain.
Cholagogue. Bile, which is formed in the liver and stored in the gall bladder, is released in the duodenum (after meal and its passage from the stomach into the intestine). Bile contains enzymes that break down fats, and substances which promote the passage of fatty substances in the blood and their absorption by the body. With a weak secretion of bile food is not digested properly and in the gallbladder bile acid crystallization occurs with the formation of sand and stones, which can block the bile duct and cause a disease with very serious consequences. In the gall bladder and ducts occurs inflammation, excess of mucus is produced and foreign microorganisms are bred. Such diseases of liver are extremely strengthened in our time because of the constant irritation of liver by chemical factors, particularly alcohol, and therefore efficiency, the body's resistance to infections is reduced. Increased secretion of bile helps to remove sand and small stones, mucus, microorganisms, and therefore improvement throughout this area and improve the process of digestion, elimination of stagnation. Bile properties are peculiar to some essential oils (peppermint, menthol), which are part of the solution of the Czech drug - cholagol or rowachol, which is produced in the GDR. These essential oils reduce the muscle of the gall bladder that pushes the bile. Fatty oils, such as olive or peach also promote the secretion of bile, but mainly relieve spasms and liquefy the bile, making it easier to be poured through the straits. Wild Rose, “stigma” of corn, common agrimony, horsetail - as typical cholagogic plants.
Diuretics. Tea, coffee, cocoa have strong diuretic properties due to caffeine, a closely related compounds. The mechanism of action of these substances in the urine is that under the influence of expanding blood vessels in the kidneys, is increased the blood flow and facilitated urine flow. Interestingly, in its chemical structure, called alkaloids, are close to uric acid, which is formed by the exchange of nitrogenous substances in the cells of the animal body and demands the withdrawal of the urine.
And many other substances facilitate the excretion of urine, although the physiological and biochemical reasons for the actions are different. The diuretic effect is in such plants: Herniaria, Inula, corn (styles of stigmas – “hair”), lovage, “fruits” of juniper, sea squill, roots of primrose, seeds of parsley, motherwort, leaves of bearberry, horsetail and many others. Urine output increases the use of any herbal teas and decoction against other diseases.
Binder (material) - phytochemicals (tannins, tannins) which determine folding of protein, as a result of which protein membranes lose water, sealed, capillaries are coarcted so that the leukocytes (white blood cells) cannot pass there through. Skin, mucous membranes grow dumb, it is bind in the mouth, and there is a tart taste. However, cells and tissues retain the ability to live, and after removing the binder completely restore their livelihoods. In the stomach and intestines binder besieges proteins of food and mucus so that films are formed, that protect the walls of the digestive system against irritation. Therefore, automatic wave-like contractions of smooth muscles, which banished the food mass through the intestines are slacken or even stopped. Therefore, the food mass are staying longer in the gut, the greatest of these is absorbed by the water and stool becomes hard. Diarrhea under the action of binders is terminated, so it is often used for such purpose.
In addition, most binders terminate the operations of the microflora, delaying cell division and creating an unfavorable environment. Binders stop the bleeding, causing clotting of blood proteins (such as hemorrhoids). Binders are used when it is necessary to firm up the skin, to reduce the activity of glands, and to prevent bad odors from the body.
Binders are derived from the bark of oak, viburnum, alder, and with its cones, roots burnet, coil, galangal, roots and leaves of Bergenia crassifolia, grass of water-pepper, Capsella, from the leaves of sage and bearberry, from sorrel seeds, from fruits of blueberry and cherry, and of tea.
Hemostatic. In order to stop bleeding, it is necessary to reduce blood flow to the affected area and cause the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) which covers the damaged vessel or capillary. The first is done with the help of binders, causing the narrowing of blood vessels and capillaries and reduces blood pressure. At the same time they contribute to the formation of a clot. In humans, vitamin K or phylloquinone take an active role in blood coagulation, which is in many plants in the photosynthetic organs. The plants with such properties are Capsella, nettle, yarrow, White Campion and Great Burnet. For the exterior of fresh scratches binders are suitable. For internal bleeding of the uterus and lungs is used liquid extract of water-pepper, according to the method of academician Kravkov, to stop uterine bleeding - preparations of ergot (Claviceps purpurea - fungal disease of rye) and goldenseal Canadian Hydrastis canadensis.
Expectorants - therapeutic agents that help to remove mucus from the respiratory tract, they are inside, they act on the mucous membrane of the stomach, and through it, irritation is passed either in a reflex response to the lungs, or through the vomiting center again to the lungs. In the lungs is the process of dilution and accumulation of mucus in its large trachea and bronchi, where it is more easily removed with coughing. During the sputum retention in the lungs, it can fester and lead to very serious consequences. Root of ipecac is characterized by expectorant, with active ingredient emetine, Senegal, amole and cyanosis, containing saponins, Thermopsis, marshmallow root and licorice, mud bog.
Anthelmintics (helminths) – substances, that kill or inhibit round and tapeworms (tapeworms) parasitic in the human intestine. Poisons against worms are usually toxic to humans, so it is necessary to use them in such doses and forms that do not cause serious consequences for the patient. Before applying of deworming drugs it is necessary to determine the types of parasites and accordingly apply certain drugs.
Against roundworms, particularly Ascaris, is used santonica, in which there is fatal to them santonine. Santonine is toxic to humans, but it is taken together with laxatives to accelerate peristalsis and remove the dead and the oppressed live worms along with the remains of Santonine and feces. Substances of male fern (Dryopteris filix-mas) act against tapeworms and although they cannot kill them, but paralyze the nervous and muscular system, so that the worms lose their ability to hold out with suckers on the mucous membrane of the intestine. In this case, are added the laxatives to speed up the removal of the poison from the body along with paralyzed worms that may subsequently come to life.
Anthelmintic properties are inherent to the pumpkin seeds; alkaloid is contained in the gray-green thin film on the seed, and it is advantageous in that it is completely harmless to humans.
In tropical and sub-tropical flora there are plants with strong anthelmintic properties. These are, in particular, fresh flowers (Hadema abyss inica), in which there is phluoroglucinol esters with butyric acid, similar to the compounds of male fern. Another well-known plant Mallotus philyppiensis is used to manufacture the drug “Kamala”, which includes a tar-like rottlerin (also phloroglucinol derivative material).