The resins are similar in composition to essential oils, contain a part of diterpenoids. They are usually semisolid, sticky with characteristic odor, mostly insoluble in water but soluble in ether, acetone. Resins are found in plants in special receptacles - resin ducts. At damage of plants the resins flow out and like a patch delay the wound, protecting the plant from drying out and the penetration of microbes, fungi. Resins are found in the needles, rhubarb, St. John's wort, ginger, kidney, and the leaves of birch, poplar, Aloe (in its sap are 25-30% of resinous substances). Long non-drying resins are called balsams, for example, fir resin - balsam fir. Resin is accumulated in plants in special forms, as well as exuded by natural or man-made damage to the bark and wood. Particularly rich in resins and balsams are tropical forks, but in large quantities, they are also found in conifers (spruce, fir, pine), kidney (birch, poplar), senna leaves, grass hypericum, juniper berries, rhubarb, etc.
Long since fragrant resins and balsams were used as incense,nowadays they are also widely used in cosmetics, medicine, are derived from pine, fir, St. John's wort, rhubarb, birch buds, etc. During the distillation resins are remained in the sediment, and the purified essential oils are deteriorated faster. For this reason, the Chinese and Indian fans of sandalwood retain flavor for decades, and the smell of sandalwood essential oil, applied to the tree, disappears after a couple of days. Like cinnamon, cloves retain the smell for years, and their oils are evaporated quickly and spoil.
In ancient Egypt, resinous substance (myrrh, resin) were used to embalm corpses. Resins used for cooking sticky plasters, tinctures. Pine resin enters into the сleolum - wound healing patch. Resins of some plants have antibacterial and antignilostnymi actions. They also have a laxative (podophyllin), diuretic, sedative effect. Resins have a great use in the manufacture of paints, plastics material, paint, paper, etc. A number of plants are kept together with other drugs (alkaloids, glycosides, etc.), increasing their therapeutic effect in the total formulation.
Phytoncides (a word of Greek origin, “phyton” – “plant” and “caedo” – “kill”) - biologically active bactericidal volatile substances, produced by certain plants: garlic, onion, horseradish, radish, mustard, cherry, eucalyptus, poplar, crusts citrus fruit, wild peony roots, leaves of thistles, leaves and berries of juniper, birch and other plants. Pine forests, growing on the area of 1 ha, allocates to the atmosphere about 5 kg of volatile production per day, juniper forest - more than 30 kg, so the air in such forests is practically sterile, also very clean air is in the fir, pine, birch forest. Many germs and bacteria that cause rust, rot and other diseases of plants, do not like phytoncides of fresh needles of juniper, pine, cedar, fir, geranium, chrysanthemum, cress, horseradish, radish, pepper, tarragon. The action is explained phytoncides phenomenon in which plants of one species inhibit or alternatively, stimulate the growth and development of other species. This should particularly take into account not only in the indoor horticulture, but when you make a bouquet in a vase of cut flowers.
Spring flowers are dying faster if in a vase are lilies of the valley with them. Roses cannot stand the neighborhood with carnations, daffodils - with tulips and forget-me-not. Many plants are detrimental to pests (insects, rodents, worms), the ants do not like the smell of parsley, tomatoes, garlic and onions (rub with the head of garlic a place where domestic ants live - they leave the room).
Phytoncides stimulate protective properties of the body, have the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa, a beneficial effect on the health of man. They repel rodents, insects are killed, stimulate the growth of some plants and the oppression of others. These substances were discovered in 1928 by Soviet scientist V. P. Tokin.
Phytoncides, which allocate all plants both on land and in water, are produced only by living cells. Phytoncides do not only kill the microbes, but also stimulate the immune system, resulting in the suspended division of cancer cells.
Phytoncides serve for the treatment and prevention of diseases (influenza and adenovirus infections, sore throat, diseases of the digestive organs, mouth, throat, respiratory tract, treatment of purulent wounds). Medications of such plants are assigned to treat the inflammatory diseases, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Antibiotics are made from them, used in certain skin diseases, and infectious.
Phytoncides may be called antibiotics, synthesized in higher plants. However, when taking medicines, containing phytoncides, it is necessary to consider that certain antibiotics (penicillin, erythromycin) are not active in the acidic environment. Therefore, it is prohibited to drink acidic fruit and vegetable juices, to take acidic foods, when taking these medications. For example, taking digitalis preparations, it is necessary to avoid eating infusions of herbs, rich tannins. In the treatment of tetracycline, foods rich in calcium are contraindicated. Patients, taking vitamins, should avoid eating foods that contain pyridoxine (walnuts, beans, etc.).
Pigments - these are dye-stuffs, which are complex organic compounds. They are contained primarily in the roots, flowers, leaves and roots of the plant fruit. They are poorly understood. Plants, containing coloring agents have long found use in folk medicine as a disinfectant and wound-healing agents.
In folk medicine of Azerbaijan are used more than 300 species of plants rich in coloring matter. Thus, henna is used for painting fingernails and feet mainly sanitary purpose as henna dye has bactericidal properties. Preparations henna is used in athlete's foot, eczema, for the treatment of septic wounds (ointments, solutions). Clearly defined curative effect of different varieties of berry wines, which themselves contain dyes or coloring raspberries and blueberries.
Pigments of henna, sumac, maple, clover, pomegranate, walnut as an aqueous infusion give positive results in the treatment of burns and infected wounds. The bactericidal properties of plants have a destructive effect on the daily culture of staphylococci, streptococci, enteric bacteria. Infected wounds are quickly cleared of pus and granulated.
In the green parts of the plant is contained the pigment of chlorophyll (from 0.6 to 1.2% of the dry leaf), which includes magnesium. This pigment plants by chemical structure similar to the pigment of human blood - hemoglobin. Recently found healing property of chlorophyll: it has a stimulating and tonic effect, increases the basal metabolic rate, tone of the uterus, intestines, heart and circulatory system, the respiratory center, stimulates granulation tissue and epithelialization, affects on blood count, increasing leukocytes and hemoglobin. The active biological effect pigments of plants require further and careful study.
Composed of a living cell are the same chemical elements that are part of inanimate nature. Of the 107 elements of the periodic of D. I. Mendeleev in cells are found 60. They are divided into three groups:
1 - the main elements - oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen (98% of cells);
2 - elements constituting tenths or hundredths of a percent - macro-iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine (in an amount of 1.9%);
3 - the rest of the elements, presented in even smaller amounts - microelements.
Elements, the content of which in the body is millions and billions of percent are called ultramicroelements. For example, lanthanum, radium, samarium, thorium, uranium, etc.
Micro-and ultramicroelements are also necessary for the functioning of the body. The lack or absence may lead to various diseases.