Glycosides - a complex group of nitrogen-free organic compounds consisting of sugar (glucones) and non-sugar (aglycone-genin) parts. Obtained in pure form, they are crystalline substances readily soluble in water and more difficult - in alcohol, bitter taste, many of them are toxic. For therapeutic purposes are used in small doses. They are very similar to hormones.Metabolic engineering of glycosylated polyketid

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Alkaloids - complex organic nitrogen-containing basic compound of alkaline nature, which have strong physiological effects on the body. Got its name from the arabic word "alkali" (lye) and greek word "eidos" (similar). Their chemical structure is diverse and complex. The alkaloids are found in the form of salts of organic acids - oxalic, malic, citric, dissolved in the cell sap (morphine, caffeine, atropine, brucine, nicotine, etc.), and are the most important group of biologically active substances from which is the largest number of highly therapeutic drugs.
Opening of the alkaloids in the early XIX century is compared by value for medicine with the discovery of iron for the world culture. Currently, approximately 5000 different isolated alkaloids are presented in plants in the form of organic and sometimes inorganic acids.

What is alkaloids
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It's a very diverse group of substances that are common in the plant world. Their common feature that brings together in one group is the presence in the molecule of the aromatic (benzene) core, which is one hydroxyl or phenolic, hydroxyl groups. The aromatic nucleus can have two and three hydroxyl groups, which are distinguished by mono-, di-or tri phenol. These are the main reactive hydroxy groups of phenolic compounds. If the molecule contains several aromatic nuclei with the appropriate hydroxy, polyphenols occur. The simplest is the actual phenol, or carbolic acid, a powerful disinfectant. Catechol, resorcinol and hydroquinone refer to bisphenols, to triphenol - pyrogallol, phloroglucinol and oksigidrohinon. The enzymes are able to polymerize phenols, insoluble molecule of tannins, lignin, melanins and humus.phenols description

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Vitamins. First of all, these are substances of high physiological activity, which have different chemical nature and the human body to perform a variety of biochemical and physiological functions. They have in common is that they (at least in very small quantities) are required for our existence, and if they are not in the diet, leading to disease and even death.


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