Organic acid - carbon chemical compound with other elements. They are permanent components of the plant, along with carbohydrates and proteins, sometimes exceeding the content of the latter. They define taste plants and sometimes smell. They are in form of solutions in cell sap of many plants in free form or in salt form. Plants contain organic fatty acids and aromatic, which have a cyclic structure. Organic fatty acids are very diverse. The most common are malic, citric, acetic, oxalic. There is a lot of citric acid in the lemon (up to 9% of the dry weight) in the leaves of tobacco (7.8%), cotton, and in garnets, cranberries, etc. Malic acid is found in significant numbers in the fruits of mountain ash, barberry, and dogwood in apples. A lot of oxalic acid is in sorrel (10-16%), spinach, begonias.
The smell of plants is responsible for the volatile acid - formic acid, butyric acid, acetic acid, etc. Among the aromatic acids are found benzoic acid, salicylic acid, gallic acid, cinnamic, coumaric, chlorogenic, caffeic, quinine in plants and other organic acids are actively involved in the metabolism and stimulates the activity of the salivary glands , bile, pancreatic juice, have a bactericidal effect, reduce putrefaction in the intestines.
Some organic acids have a biological activity (ascorbic acid, citric acid, nicotine, etc.). promote digestion, increase the secretion of digestive juices, and intestinal peristalsis, which is especially important for the elderly. In addition to these properties of citric acid there is one more thing: in the form of sodium citrate is for the preservation of blood for transfusion.
Medicinal value has valeric and isovaleric acids, which are extracted from the roots of valerian, organic acids - fumarole, succinic, etc. which form salts with alkaloids. As therapeutic agent the most important is citric acid. It specifically quenches thirst, so patients who are feverish, drink extract of lemon or cranberry. Due to the lack of lemons it is produced from the leaves of tobacco or cotton-plant, in which the content of citric acid is 15%. In addition to medicinal organic acids there are ballast, easily removed from the raw material for preparing pharmaceuticals. The source of various organic acids is raspberries (citric, malic, salicylic acid), cranberry (citric, benzoic acid, quinic), lemons, pomegranates (citric acid). Organic acids, along with carbohydrates and proteins are permanent components of the plant. Accumulating in large amounts in the leaves, stems and fruit in particular, organic acids impart a sour taste to the plant parts, and sometimes smell. Substances primary synthesis include: proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids (fats), enzymes, and vitamins.
An enzyme - proteins, caused selectively precipitate of certain biochemical reactions in the body, guiding and regulating metabolism.
Enzymes - essential biological catalysts that are present in all living cells. Depending on conditions the enzymes contribute not only to degradation of a substance, but also its reverse recovery. Only in conjunction with enzymes, vitamins, hormones and trace elements become active. Any chemical and biological reactions in the human body occur through direct involvement of enzymes. According to scientists, in the human body, there are about 3,000 of different enzymes. Within one minute the same enzyme is able to participate in 36 million of biochemical reactions. Changes in the glycosides by enzymes are under certain conditions. For example, intensive disintegration of glycosides starts with the death of the plant, so as to quickly drain the collected feed, thereby to terminate the enzyme. Many enzymes are part of certain vitamins, however its activity is closely associated with various hormones. For example, the hormone insulin regulates the activity of hexokinase enzyme involved in sugar complex transformations. Enzymatic processes occur during baking, wine making, etc.
Bolotov considers the waste products of single-cell enzymes, separating them into two mutually antithetical classes, which include enzymes of animal and vegetable origin. Enzymes of animal origin are produced by using, as a rule, yeast bacteria and bacteria of dairy bacillus. Yeast bacteria extract from the gut phytophagous of animals, such as sheep, goats, cows, zebras, saiga antelope, deer, wild boar, elk, red deer and others. Yeast bacteria are capable of handling different vegetable plant proteins. For example, known yeast well process proteins of wheat and other cereal plants, and yeast of boar are able to process proteins of acorns, chestnuts and corn. Since corn bread without yeast of boar to prepare for the benefit of man is simply impossible. In medicine is applied pepsin, trypsin, hyaluronidase, etc.
An integral part of the enzyme that accelerates the biosynthesis of phospholipids is choline. It is also referred to B vitamins. Choline lack of food leads to fatty degeneration of the liver and kidneys, the extinction of the thyroid gland. Choline excites peristalsis biliary and urinary tract infections, strengthens the processes of assimilation and dissimilation, and inhibits the development of atherosclerosis. Natural sources of choline - wheat, oats, barley, beef liver, herring, egg yolk, chicory, dandelion, St. John's wort. Daily human need of choline is 250-600 mg. The enzyme catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxides H2O2 as 5 million units in 1 minute. Lipase is an enzyme that breaks down fats. It does not allow fat food to deposit in body tissues. Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down starch. It blocks the hydrolysis of starch in the intestine, thereby preventing life-threatening increase in blood sugar in diabetic patients. Protease is an enzyme that breaks down proteins. Protease plasmin in the body responsible for the dissolution of blood clots. Scientists believe that the lack of enzyme promotes a number of diseases, such as degenerative disorders (osteoarthritis, emphysema, osteoporosis, digestive disorders, and others), as well as autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma), and cancer. Metabolic disorders due to use of poor food enzymes can cause cancer, heart disease, diabetes and many other diseases.
Biochemistry professor James Sumner wrote that “the feeling of aging after the age of forty years - is the result of reducing enzymes in the body and the ability to produce them”. As a result, long-term storage and transportation of fertilizers and pesticides, premature harvesting, cleaning, sterilization and pasteurization of food enzymes in them are completely destroyed.