Pectin (from the Greek. Pectos - thickened, coagulated) - are part of the cell-cell adhesive substance. This is close to the gums and mucous carbohydrate polymers, consisting of a uronic of acid residue and monosaccharides. Are polysaccharides of the cell walls. The main component of pectin polysaccharides are polyuronic acid. Small part in the pectin polysaccharides are neutral - arabinans and galactans.
Pectin is an important component of plant cells, although an insignificant part of the cell wall (up to 5%). It is a little known about transformations pectin, as it is very difficult to remove from the cell wall, where the pectin is in the form of insoluble compounds, known as protopectin whose composition has been studied less. During the ripening of fruits and vegetables, protopectin more or less become the pectin. This enzymatic process and is influenced by a complex pectolytic enzymes. Commercially is prepared from beet pectin (dry weight of tubers of beet comprises pectin up to 25%) and some other plant materials (pressed lemons, apples, etc.). At the heart of pectin is its ability to precipitate with ethanol. Characteristic and important feature of pectin is its ability to form gels that are widely used in the food industry. The ability to form gels in different plants varies considerably and depends upon the molecular weight of pectin, degree of methoxylated galacturonic acid residues and the amount of related substances. Since pectin is widely distributed in the plant kingdom is especially important to know about them in cases where the content of pectin substances in medicinal plants reach significant quantities (cranberries, rose hips, licorice root, etc.) and they are involved in the overall treatment effect, which is manifested by the main active ingredient.
A characteristic property of pectin is used in medicine - their ability to produce gels in the presence of sugar and acid. Pectins as vegetable products are used as pharmaceutical excipients for the preparation of a number of dosage forms such as emulsions - as an emulsifier in pilyulnyh mass - as a bonding component, etc.). Pectin - important components of plant cells capable of binding to the intestinal toxic elements, neutralizing and taking them out of the body (in particular, bind radioactive cobalt and strontium) to promote education in the gut of B vitamins are used to treat colitis and enterocolitis, including dysentery origin, gastritis, liver and urinary system, internal bleeding. Most of the pectin is not digested and absorbed by the body and is derived from it, together with harmful substances. Pectin improve digestion, reduce putrefaction in the intestines and output toxic metabolites, that are formed in the body, and help life and the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, the removal of excessive amounts of cholesterol. Pectic substances are widely used in the treatment of diarrhea. Particularly rich in pectin strawberries, rose hips, cranberries, black currants, apples, lemons, oranges, cranberry, etc. A large number of pectin are found in fruit and vegetables - radishes, beets, apples, cherries, gooseberries, currants, rose hips in, and viburnum etc.
Apple pectin delays reproduction of influenza virus “A”, reduces the effects of mercury and lead poisoning, promotes the removal of lead from bone.
Cellulose - the most common naturally occurring polysaccharide, bulk plant of cell membranes. It was believed that fiber is not digested in the intestines. Recently found that some types of fiber is partially digested. Fiber, mechanically acting on the nerve endings of the intestinal wall, stimulating peristalsis, stimulates the secretion of digestive juices, gives the porosity of food mass, providing a more comprehensive access to the digestive juices, increases the bioavailability of food, normalize life activity of beneficial intestinal bacteria, promotes the excretion of toxic products and cholesterol is essential for the synthesis of B vitamins and vitamin C. It assists in normalizing blood pressure and metabolism in the liver.
Inulin - polysaccharide is formed of fructose residues, is a carbohydrate reserve of many plants, mainly compositae (chicory, artichokes, etc.). Used as a substitute for starch and sugar in diabetes.
Lipids - natural substances of different composition are readily soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Most medical significance of these lipids are as fats and fatty oils. They are spare nutrients plants and accumulate in large quantities in fruits and seeds. Lipids - amino acid derivatives, and reduced speed metabolism, which greatly helps in the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, Down syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease. With the help of lipids are restored nerve cells.