Life, according to generally accepted definition of Engels is a special form of existence of proteins, which are based on the exchange of matter and energy. Every organism, every living cell is composed of proteins - large polymer molecules are very complex and unique, typical for almost every organism.
Proteins are synthesized in cells by the so-called genetic code in special molecular matrices - complex molecules of DNA and RNA, and therefore differ in precise individuality. Each cell has different types of proteins. Some of them form the outer semipermeable membrane, the so-called lectins. They strictly control in order a substance, a virus or disease-causing germs are not penetrated into the cell,. From them, as some believing depends cessation of cell division, and when they do not perform their functions, cells continue to chaotic, randomly devide themselves - and a tumor are formed. Other proteins form a double membrane, which forms a new cell organelles, and others are in stock, etc.
However, despite the great variety of proteins, they are composed of only 20 amino acids, called the constituent (there are several hundreds of all amino acids). Our body is able to synthesize only 10 amino acids, and the remaining 10 are indispensable, because we have to get them only with food. This is - threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, tryptophan, lysine, arginine and phenylalanine. And when in our food allowance is not enough, for example, lysine and tryptophan, our diet is deficient. Legumes - peas, beans, lentils and grains - wheat, rye, barley, oats, and vegetables are rich in proteins and amino acids. Grains of some plants, such as corn, has no individual essential amino acids, so eating only corn and any other plant is not necessary, because the body needs different foods.
Proteins - is both enzymes. Proteins denature high temperatures and they lose their enzymatic activity. Therefore, when it is necessary to enrich the complex of our own enzymes of plant, plants need to be used in the form of a green and fresh, as when standing in damaged green plant, autolysis is blocked in their cells: enzymes digest the contents of the cells and destroy themselves.
Proteins are divided into simple (proteins) and complex (proteid).
Simple proteins during deep hydrolysis or digestion by enzymes are decomposed on amino acids which are thus basic structural unit of proteins. Proteins are found in plants as protamines, histones albumins and - relatively simple, soluble in water and as globulins and glutelins - insoluble in water, but those which are soluble in solutions of salts either acids or alkalis.
Complex proteins constitute a set of simple protein from non-protein component. Thus, lipoproteins associated with fats and thus are involved in fat metabolism, phospho-conjugated proteins are involved in energy processes, metalloproteins are more often enzymes of respiration . Glycoproteins, i.e combination of protein and sugar, or lectins are the outer surfaces of cells and provide immunity against infections, regulate cell division. There are a lot of lectins in the seeds of legumes and many medicinal plants. Of particular importance are the nucleoproteins, which are involved in the synthesis of new protein molecules, that is, provide the most important thing - the transfer of genetic characteristics and underlying growth processes.
By themselves, proteins and amino acids in herbal medicine are not used yet, but they are crucial in the life of plants and animals. Some inherited diseases are nothing but a disease of protein molecules, and therefore violated the complicated mechanism of a living creature. They have been opened more than 3,000. Fortunately, they do not occur very often.
Nucleic acids are composed of a nitrogenous base (cytosine, uracil, adenine, guanine, thymine, 5-methylcytosine), sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and phosphoric acid. Sami nucleic acid chemically inactive and drug is not used. Their cleavage products are very active and are part of stimulant medications. The above mentioned nitrogen bases and others that are not included in the nucleic acids, found in some medicinal plants, often in large quantities. They are biochemically related to the alkaloids, which have a very high physiological activity.