Vitamins. First of all, these are substances of high physiological activity, which have different chemical nature and the human body to perform a variety of biochemical and physiological functions. They have in common is that they (at least in very small quantities) are required for our existence, and if they are not in the diet, leading to disease and even death.

Vitamins

Classification of vitamins was historically as opening them, and therefore there is no logical principle in their names and chemical formulas. Some vitamins are part of enzymes and others are important by intermediate products of metabolism, of which there is a need of connection for the body, others are suppliers of functional groups. Green plants are able to synthesize almost all vitamins, so they do not lack, while most bacteria, fungi, animals and, of course, people are in need of such substances as vitamin B. In medicine vitamins are divided into soluble (provitamin A, D, E, K) and water-soluble (group B, C, F, H).

Vitamins

Vitamin deficiency is conditioned to the fact that they are not in each foodstuff, are easily broken when boiled, canning and changing acidity. Medical industry produces separate preparations of vitamins and combinations thereof, calculated on certain ages of patients, however there is a very fair belief that the vitamins which naturally we consume with food are more valuable chemical powders and tablets. Basically vitamin activity exhibits not a single substance, but a group of related compounds which are converted in the body into a desired shape.
The following table provides a list of key vitamins.

Vitamins and their functions

The name, synonym,

Chemical properties

Distribution, biochemical role

Provitamin A, akseroftol. It consists of A1, A2, neovitamin A angidrovitamin A degidrovitamin A retinen1, retinen2, whaler.

Fat-soluble, sensitive to oxidation, relatively resistant. Chemically is half a molecule of B-carotene.

Provitamin A or carotene, found in green parts of plants, in a letter of alfalfa, clover, nettle, parsley, lettuce, carrots, in the tomatoes, red pepper, in the fruits of sea buckthorn, mountain ash, apricot, rose hips. Protects the epithelium, provides a normal condition of the skin, mucous membranes of the eyes, promotes healing of wounds.

Vitamin B1, thiamine, aneurine, aneyrin.

Soluble in water, not heat resistant. Is a coenzyme kokarboksilazy.

Contained in the green parts of plants, in the outer parts of the grains (brown bread, bran), in nuts, potatoes, brewer's yeast, carrots. Regulates carbohydrate metabolism.

Vitamin B2, Riboflavin, lactoflavin, 6,7-dimethyl-D-9-iribitil-izoaloksazin.

Soluble in water, fairly stable in the acidic environment, is rapidly destroyed in alkaline, heat-resistant, but sensitive to light. Is a coenzyme of different redox systems, in particular of flavin oxidases.

There is in any plant and animal cell, and in large quantities in the yeast,germinated beans of grains, bran, mold fungi.

Vitamin B3, Pantothenic Acid, R-factor A; imetilbutiril-dihydroxy-alanine.

Soluble in water, heat-resistant, is destroyed by acid or alkali. Contained in the enzyme deacetylases, involved in the processes of respiration.

In yeast, the surface layers of grains (bran).

Vitamin B5, PP, nicotinic acid, niacin, nicotinamide, niacinamide.

Soluble in water, heat resistant. Contained in the materials transporters of energy in cells.

Contained in the outer layers of seeds and young seedlings of cereals, in peanuts, peas, in potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, buckwheat. Is an activator of phosphorus, carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

Vitamin B6, pyridoxine, adermin, 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-pyridine-ksimetil.

Soluble in water, heat-resistant, light-sensitive. Decarboxylases is a coenzyme of certain amino acids, is a part of transaminases.

In yeast, seeds, seedlings of cereals. It is formed from pyridoxal and pyridoxamine in the body.

Vitamin B2, vitamin F, folic acid, folic acid, N-/ 4 (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl pteridine) -  aminobenzene) - glutamic acid

Soluble in water, unstable, easily destroyed by heat, oxidizing action, reducing, light.

In green plants, spinach, mushrooms, yeast. Takes a part in thymine biosynthesis, wich is part of the RNA that is, important for growth and protein metabolism in the treatment of radiation sickness.

Vitamin H, biotin, bios-II, coenzyme R.

Soluble in water, heat resistant. Is a coenzyme of hexokinase and carboxylase.

Included in the group of vitamins B found in bran, nuts, carrots, leafy salads. Synthesized by intestinal microflora. Involved in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, cures dermatitis. Is not seen in the deficiency.

Factor F, p-aminobenzoic acid.

Thermostable, poorly soluble in water.

Contained in plant and animal tissues.

Inositol, bios, and mesoinosit, hexahydrobenzene.

Soluble in water.

Contained in the seeds, seedlings, in yeast.

Vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin, a-(5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazolyl)-cobalamin-cyanide.

Soluble in water, heat-resistant, decays in the light. There is a coenzyme methionine synthase.

It is found in actinomycetes, green plants. Accelerates the synthesis of DNA, and thus the growth of cells involved in the creation of red blood cells. Very important for pregnant women.

Vitamin C, ascorbic acid.

Soluble in water, very sensitive to oxidation and heat, unstable. When storing the plant is almost completely destroyed.

Is found in green plants, potatoes, onions, radishes, lemon, orange, rose, unripe walnuts, black currants, red pepper, Actinidia - up to 1%. Involved in redox reactions. With a lack of vitamin C gums are bleeding, teeth are fall out and stagger-(scurvy).

Vitamin D, its group includes D2, D3, or cholecalciferol and D4.

Fat-soluble, heat-resistant. Promotes the deposition of calcium in the bones.

The body is formed by ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol from that is found in green plants, fungi, especially in the oil. Antirachitic factor is especially important for children.

Vitamin E, tocopherol.

Soluble in fats, it is heat-resistant, light sensitivity and oxidation.

In the green parts of the plant Is contained 10-40 mg% in the seeds up to 80 mg% in a single flour milling, oil from embryos of rye and wheat, linseed and olive oil, rose hip, sesame, peanuts, salad.

Vitamin K, it includes a group of at least five related compounds.

Fat-soluble, light-sensitive.

Is always contained in chloroplasts, i.e in the green mass of plants. Promotes blood clotting in wounds.

Vitamins F, in its acid group are: linoleic, linolenic.

Fat-soluble, stable.

Component of sunflower, linseed, olive oil contained in the seeds of many oily plants. It protects the skin and introduced into the cream.

Vitamin P, citrine.

A mixture of flavones: eriodictyol and hesperidin, rutin. Sparingly soluble in water.

In lemon, red pepper, rose, tea, blueberries, black currants. Increases the stability and permeability of blood vessels, anti-sclerotic factor, prevents radiation sickness.

Vitamin T, termitin.

The formula is not exactly given. Soluble in water and alcohol. Resistant to t ° -120 ° C.

In yeast and other fungi.

Some vitamins, such as A, accumulate in the liver and, therefore, the human body can handle with reserve for a while. However, in general the most important vitamins (B, C) in the body accumulate insufficiently and quickly comes shortage. It is necessary to pay attention that vitamins were in the food every day. This is especially important in the winter-spring period, when the products as a result of long-term storage of the vitamin content are much reduced. The lack of vitamins in the diet leads to avitaminosis. In the extreme, this is a very serious illness, ending with death: lack of vitamin C leads to scurvy, and when there is no nutritional vitamin B1, beriberi is developed, PP - pellagra. With avitaminosis there is fatigue, flaky and cracked skin on hands and elbows, inflammation of the mucous membranes, disturbed of digestion.

Картинки по запросу надлишок вітамінів

With an excess of some vitamins, such as A, is caused by a kind of poisoning - hypervitaminosis. Do not forget that vitamins - biologically active substances and should not be overused. Some recommend for colds to take up to 1 g or more of vitamin C that is 10-15 per diem rules. This measure really helps, but it should not be abused, because there comes an undesirable habit-forming in the body and there are enzymes that quickly destroy vitamin, and when a person goes to a normal diet, he gets vitamin deficiency. Vitamins are necessary for life, not only for people, but also for microorganisms.
It was learned that among the organic substances are the so-called antivitamin. They have a molecular structure similar to vitamins, but with some differences. These molecules are in metabolism as vitamins, but according to those differences do not pass it to the end, “lock” it, and therefore throughout the body is observed the same phenomena as in the lack of vitamins. Streptocide is a antivitamin for para-aminobenzoic acid (vitamin F), which is needed for many infectious microorganisms as well as for the growth of young organisms.
The best regulator to meet the needs of vitamins is the organism itself, which is necessary to give a fresh and varied food, and only organism will adjust how much and what it needs.